Saturday, May 23, 2020
In phonetics, prosody (or suprasegmental phonology)Ã isÃ the use of pitch, loudness, tempo, and rhythm in speech to convey information about the structure and meaning of an utterance. Alternatively, in literary studies prosody is the theory and principles of versification, especially in reference to rhythm, accent and stanza. In speech as opposed to composition, there are no full stops or capital letters, no grammatical ways in which to add emphasis as in writing. Instead, speakers utilize prosody to add inflection and depth to statements and arguments, altering stress, pitch, loudness and tempo, which can then be translated into writing to achieve the same effect. Further, prosody does not rely on the sentence as a basic unit, unlike in composition, often utilizing fragments and spontaneous pauses between thoughts and ideas for emphasis. This allows more versatility of language dependent on stress and intonation. Functions of Prosody Unlike morphemes and phonemes in composition, features of prosody cannot be assigned meaning based on their use alone, rather based on usage and contextual factors to ascribe meaning to the particular utterance. Rebecca L. Damron notes in Prosodic Schemas that recent work in the field take into consideration such aspects of interaction as how prosody can signal speakers intentions in the discourse, rather than relying solely on semantics and the phrasing itself. The interplay between grammar and other situational factors, Damron posits, are intimately connected with pitch and tone, and called for a move away from describing and analyzing prosodic features as discrete units. As a result, prosody can be utilized in a number of ways, including segmentation, phrasing, stress, accentuation and phonological distinctions in tone languages Ã¢â¬â as Christophe dAlessandro puts it in Voice Source Parameters and Prosodic Analysis, a given sentence in a given context generally expresses much more than its linguistic content wherein the same sentence, with the same linguistic content may have plenty of different expressive contents or pragmatic meanings. What Determines Prosody The determining factors of these expressive contents are what help define the context and meaning of any given prosody. According to dAlessandro these include the identity of the speaker, her/his attitude, mood, ages, sex, sociolinguistic group and other extralinguistic features.Ã Pragmatic meaning, too, help determine the prosodys intended purpose, including the attitudes of both the speaker and audience Ã¢â¬â ranging from aggressive to submissive Ã¢â¬â as well as the relationship between the speaker and the subject matter Ã¢â¬â his or her belief, confidence or assertiveness in the field. Pitch is a great way to also determine meaning, or at least be able to ascertain the beginnings and endings of thought. David Crystal describes the relationship in Rediscover Grammar wherein he states we know whether [the thought] is complete or not by the pitch of the voice. If the pitch is rising ... there are more items to come. If it is falling ... there is nothing further to come. In any way you use it, prosody is pivotal to successful public speaking, allowing the speaker to convey a broad range of meaning in as few words as possible, relying instead on context and cues to the audience in their speech patterns.
Monday, May 18, 2020
Enron Corporation was an energy company founded in Omaha, Nebraska. The corporation chose Houston, Texas to home its headquarters and staffed about 20,000 people. It was one of the largest natural gas and electricity providers in the United States, and even the world. In the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, Enron was widely considered a highly innovative, financially booming company, with shares trading at about $90 at their highest points. Little did the public know, the success of the company was a gigantic lie, and possibly the largest example of white-collar crime in the history of business. The roots of the lies start with former Enron CEO Kenneth Lay. This man helped bring together a number of smaller energy companies, namely InterNorth International andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦All these factors lead to figures that were less than what Ken Lay promised, and even started posting losses by the second quarter of 1997. These less than stellar numbers did not discourage company executives, and Enron continued to spend foolishly on advertisement and lobbying for deregulation. All of the prior represents the business side of the downfall of Enron. That being said, businesses fail all of the time. The reason why Enron Corporation and its executives will always live in infamy is not because the company failed, but how and why the company failed. How, exactly, does a company worth about $70 million collapse in less than a month? It became clear that the company not only had financial problems, but ethical problems that started from the top of the company and trickled down. A key player in these problems was Jeffrey Skilling. He was a man brought to the company by Ken Lay himself. Skilling brought his own accounting concept to the company. It was called mark-to-market accounting. This concept allowed Enron to record potential profits the day a deal was signed. This meant that the company could report whatever they Ã¢â¬Å"thoughtÃ¢â¬ profits from the deal were going to be an d count the number towards actual profits, even if no money actually came in. Mark-to-market accounting granted Enron the power to report major profits to the public, even if they were little or even negative. It became a major wayShow MoreRelatedEnron Scandal Of Enron Corporation Essay1145 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction Enron scandal which aroused in 2001 was one of the most famous events in the area of fraud audit. As the auditor company of Enron, Arthur Andersen failed to prepare true and fair auditing reports. They both suffered lethal loss at that time. The following paragraphs will discuss this fraud event, including the organization history, the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s event, the fraud issue in the event, the consequence of the main stakeholders, auditors in the event and their roles, and the current situationRead MoreEssay on Analysis of the Enron/Arthur Anderson Scandal1558 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEnron and Arthur Anderson were both giants in their own industry. Enron, a Texas based company in the energy trading business, was expanding rapidly in both domestic and global markets. Arthur Anderson, LLC. (Anderson), based out of Chicago, was well established as one of the big five accounting firms. But the means by which they achieved this status became questionable and eventually contributed to th eir demise. Enron used what if often referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"creativeÃ¢â¬ accounting methods, this resultedRead MoreEnrons Business Ethics Failure1485 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesContent 1. Overview ............................................................................................3 2. The Fall of Enron ...............................................................................4 3. Enrons ethical dilemmas ..................................................................6 4. Conslucions .......................................................................................7 5. Bibliography .....................................................Read MoreThe Fall Of Major Telecommunications Company Onetel And Enron1319 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages OneTel and Enron were huge technology companies, dominating the competition that they faced although - everything changed. Both of these companies operated in the same era, coincedently both suffering financial collapse. The reasons were mainly because of failure to follow major accounting principles, lacking morals and lacking strong work ethics. If even a major corporation can fall into this Ã¢â¬Å"trapÃ¢â¬ , then avoiding doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t sound easy, although accountants can easily avoid scandals by following aRead MoreFinancial Collapse : The And Enron1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOneTel and Enron were huge technology companies, dominating the competition that they faced although - everything changed. Both of these companies operated in the same era, coincedently both suffering financial collapse. The reasons were mainly because of the failure to follow major accounting principles, lacking morals and lacking strong work ethics. If even a major corporation can fall into this Ã¢â¬Å"t rapÃ¢â¬ , then avoiding doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t sound easy, although accountants can easily avoid scandals by followingRead MoreCorporate Fraud Has Taken The World By Storm For Over The Past Decade1479 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCorporate Fraud Introduction Overview Corporate fraud has taken the world by storm for over the past decade. The biggest fraud cases to ever occur happened in 2001 and 2002 and since then fraud seems to be more and more common around the world. According to Forbes.com (n.d) the biggest fraud cases to ever occur was Enron, Bernard Madoff, Lehman Brothers, and Cendant, with Enron being the largest accounting scandal to ever take place. Prior to EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s fraud scandal coming to light in 2001, theyRead MoreReasons for Enrons Business Failure1434 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEnron - Reasons for Business Failure Abstract Various major companies in the past have witnessed unimaginable growth of their businesses, but some of them eventually had to succumb to downfall as their business models failed. Most of these businesses had been deemed as failures due to the management methods, leadership practices and flawed organizational structures. This research paper aims to focus on Enron, a large entity as a failed model of business. This would be achieved by discussing aboutRead MoreBusiness Failure Paper1045 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe largest energy companies in the world, Enron Corporation. I will discuss the leadership, management, and organizational structure of the company and how this failure could have been prevented. Company Overview Enron Corporation was an American energy company in downtown Houston, Texas. Enron employed more than 22,000 workers and was one of the largest companies dealing with electricity, natural gas, and communications. In the year 2000, Enron claimed revenues of over $100 billion. ByRead MoreAuditorÃ¢â¬â¢s Role: The Importance to Overcome Ethical Dilemmas Essay example1030 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThroughout the years, the news covered stories of corporate scandals involving accounting unethical practices. These unethical corporate acts had a tremendous negative impact on these companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stockholders, investors, employees and the whole U.S. economy. Most of these scandals would have been prevented, if the independent audits of these companies were conducted in an ethical manner. With this in mind, two corporate scandals will be the subjects of further review to understand that an auditor mightRead MoreAccounting Is The Most Boring1478 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstrong reinforcements of regulating agencies such as SEC commissioners and auditors, corporations still manage to circumvent the proper accounting techniques that prevent fraudulent behaviors. Because of the consequences observed from the Enron and WorldCom scandals, stronger laws and stricter regulating requirements for businesses are a necessary issuance to address the causes of fraud and how it is committed. Current rules applied to corporations in regards to their financial statements are insufficient
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
In both Chinua AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s Things Fall Apart and Peter WeirÃ¢â¬â¢s Dead Poets Society, the nature of father and son relationships are dependant on communication, the level of compromise that each is willing to give, and how each respond to one another. In the novel, Things Fall Apart, the village of Umuofia is a place where men are no less than warriors, and must fight for their social status. In the movie, Dead Poets Society, Welton is a strict school that has set rules that shall be followed, and if disobeyed, the students will face consequences. Both of these communities have a specific way of life, but both sons attempt to challenge society, and live their own way. However, their fathers are believers of their respective rules, and are ashamedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s oldest son, Nwoye, has to achieve high expectations, to be just like his father. If he falls short of OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s near perfection, he will face consequence usually in the form of phy sical harm. Okonkwo wants Nwoye to be strong, powerful, independent, and hard-working. He must be like is father, and not like his grandfather, Unoka, or his mother. Unoka was an absolute failure in OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, and a terrible father, who did nothing to help the family. Okonkwo is a man and wants his son to be a man too, not womanly like his mother. Okonkwo wanted Ã¢â¬Å"his son to be a great farmer and a great manÃ¢â¬ (33). Okonkwo is Ã¢â¬Å"worried about Nwoye....my children do not resemble me...too much of his mother in himÃ¢â¬ (66). Okonkwo knows that Nwoye resembles more of his mother than him, but also knows that he resembles Unoka too. Both fathers want their sons to be just like them, but do little to ask what they want in life, and neither father will budge on what they want for their sons. Tom Perry and Okonkwo consider their sons as being lazy and not caring about their success. Both sons fear disappointment because they do not want to face their fatherÃ¢â ¬â¢s wrath. Originally, both attempt to do everything their fathers ask of them, but soon realize that they will never be good enough for their fathers. Tom Perry feels that Neil is lacking the drive to do well and would rather just have fun with his friends. Neil feels threatened by hisShow MoreRelatedThings Fall Apart And Dead Poets Society Analysis836 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn both the novel Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe and Dead Poets Society by Peter Wair father son relationships are observed through the stress of societys standards and the result of its oppression. The fathers, Okonkwo and Tom Perry, ultimately both want what they believe is best for their sons. Both fathers are subjected to societal standards that set their goals for their sons. The Umuofia culture depicts a great man as physically strong and stoic so Okonkwo only accepts this image for NwoyeRead MoreParental Control In Things Fall Apart And Dead Poets Society1309 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesParental Control in Moderation In the novel, Things Fall Apart, by Chinua Achebe, and in Peter WeirÃ¢â¬â¢s Dead Poets Society, both explore severe conflicts between fathers and sons, and illustrate that their needs to be a healthy balance between controlling one s children and letting them do what they want. Achebe explores the relationship between Okonkwo and his oldest son, Nwoye, while Weir demonstrates the relationship between Tom Perry and his only son, Neil. Much of OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior results fromRead MoreEvaluation Of Dead Poets Society1450 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEvaluation Over Dead Poets Society The film Dead Poets Society came out in 1989, and is a film about events taking place in a boys boarding school in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. The film stars Robin Williams in one of his first non-comical roles. The movieÃ¢â¬â¢s primary focus is exploring the teacher/student relationship. In Dead Poets Society, Robin Williams character, Mr. Keating, endeavors to develop the young menÃ¢â¬â¢s passion for music, literature, and art. He also longs to encourage the young men to Carpe Diem, whichRead MoreThe Film Dead Poets Society1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfilm Dead Poets Society came out in 1989, and is a film about events taking place in a boys boarding school in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. The film stars Robin Williams in one of his first non-comical roles. The movieÃ¢â¬â¢s primary focus is exploring the teacher/student relationship. In Dead Poets Society, Robin Williams character, Mr. Keating, endeavors to develop the young menÃ¢â¬â¢s passion for music, literature, and art. He also longs to e ncourage the young men to Carpe Diem, which is Latin for Seize the Day (Dead PoetsRead MoreDeath And Love : Emily Dickinson1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEmily Dickinson, born in a puritan and religious family in the town of Amherst, Massachusetts, is known to be one of the greatest poets of all time. However, she is characterized because she seldom left her home and had few visitors. By 1860, Dickinson lived in almost complete isolation, and yet the few people to ever have contact with her were a huge influence on her poetry. Grief, was DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s primary companion, especially during her writing period, which some scholars attribute as the timeRead MoreA Mixed Stereotype Teacher In Peter Weirs Dead Poets Society1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDead Poets Society; A Mixed Stereotype Teacher Dead Poets Society was made in 1989 and was directed by Peter Weir. It has become very popular over time and the main character, John Keating, played by Robin Williams, tries to be a nontraditional teacher in an all white male boarding school, but in reality he is actually being a stereotypical teacher by enforcing his own beliefs and disregarding others. He is driven to try and change his students view on poetry, but instead of actually helping theRead MoreEssay Causes of the Counter-Culture1245 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesprovide them with a good life. They saw everything getting better, but never understood that things would fall apart if you let it get that way. MacArtheism, an idea in the United States history when everyone was suspected to be a communist, sparked paranoia in everyone. World War II started the spark that led to an all out fire by the time Vietnam started. All things against the normal way of doing things in the United States was blamed on communists. Innocent people had their lives ruined byRead MoreLeadership Styles That Make Up Leadership1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesvision. There are several different leadership styles that make up leadership, examples of those styles will be explained throughout the paper. Remember the Titans is a film about how football was changed for the people at T.C. Williams high school. Things took a wrong turn when the local school board was forced to integrate all black students with all white students. The school hired Herman Boone (Denzel Washington) to replace the current head white coach Bill Toast (Will Patton). Together they producedRead MoreAnalysis of Alfred TennysonÃ ´s Three Poems Essay1169 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesaftermath of In Memoriam A.H.H. of Tennyson finally moving on from the grief he experienced after losing Arthur. All three poems connect with TennysonÃ¢â¬â¢s life each serving as a step towards TennysonÃ¢â¬â¢s greatness and his status as one of the most influential poets of the Victorian era. Lord Alfred Tennyson was born on August 6, 1809 in Somersby, Lincolnshire in a middle class family as the fourth child of George Clayton Tennyson and Elizabeth Fytche. George Tennyson was disinherited after some disagreementsRead MoreHills Like White Elephants By Ernest Hemingway And The Babysitter By Robert Coover1682 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespregnant very vulnerable as she seems to not have a voice about the abortion. The male figure that appears in the story seems to constantly push the woman to make the decision of killing the baby. He tells her things like Ã¢â¬Å"if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to.Ã¢â¬ (Hemingway, p 447) And things like Ã¢â¬Å"I said we can have everythingÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"all right, but youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got to realize-Ã¢â¬ . (Hemingway, p 447) The male figure is very smart in the story he uses his words making it seem it is her decision but he is pushing
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Otitis media, otherwise known as an ear infection, is a very common occurrence in children seven months up to fifteen years of age. Specifically, this type of ear infection is categorized as an inflammation of the middle ear, and subcategorized into either acute otitis or chronic otitis media. It begins with a bacterial or viral infection from the throat that spreads into the ear, causing a fluid backup in the middle part of the ear. Ã¢â¬Å"It is estimated that, by the time they reach two years of age, all the children in the United States currently under that age will have had a total of 9.3 million episodes of acute otitis media, and that approximately 17 percent of children have three or more episodes during a six-month period (Berman 1995).Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Predisposing agents that can lead to higher risk are colds, upper respiratory infections, exposure to air irritants (such as tobacco smoke), and children who have down syndrome or cleft palate. Bacterial pathogens that are common be the eight-five percent of the causation to otitis media can range from streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), nontypable hemophilus influenzae, pseudomonas, and moraxella. However, it is much easier to contract an ear infection than spread it, and although it is the child is suffering from the pathology the most, it also causes parents to have greater anxiety and stress as well as disrupt average work and school cycles in daily living. Symptoms and signs of otitis media can range from a combination of earaches, fever, and fussiness in small children. Fluid buildup known as middle-ear effusion due to otitis media can cause temporary hearing loss, and the fluid buildup in the ear can leak into the ear canal. Acute infections of otitis media differ from chronic because they typically are short-lasting with a rapid onset. Symptoms exhibited can range from vomiting, fever, pain, loss of hearing, inflammation of the tympanic membrane, and often are a result from viral upper respiratory infections. Although over diagnosed, there are certain methods to distinguish Acute Otitis Media (AOM); Ã¢â¬Å"theShow MoreRelatedManagement of Acute Otitis Media Essay1319 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAcute Otitis Media (AOM), inflammation or infection of the middle ear, is an illness most parents have had experience with. Countless hours of lost sleep and worry secondary to their childÃ¢â¬â¢s pain and distress can keep even the most seasoned parents awake at night. Before the age of 36 months, 83% of children will experience 1 or more ear infections and AOM is the most common reason for office visits of preschoolers in the United States (Zhou, Shefer, Kong Nuorti, 2008). The graphic below servesRead MoreOtitis Media with Effusion Essay1608 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) can be defined as, Ã¢â¬Å"The presence of fluid in the middle ear without signs or symptoms of acute ear infectionÃ¢â¬ (Pediatrics, 2004). It can be said that OME is an invisible disorder, as there are no immediate signs or symptoms of an acute ear infection such as ear pain, fever, or displeasure (Williamson, 2007). However, OME can have very significant consequences in the life of a child. Early identification and monitoring of OME can combat against possible speech andRead MoreDiseases: Otitis Media with Effusion Essay2207 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesOtitis media with Effusion (OME) The Ear The ear is made up of an outer (external), middle and inner ear. The outer and middle ear is mainly involved in transmitting sounds to the inner ear where that sound is processed. The first step in this process involves sound waves entering the external auditory canal and passing the tympanic membrane (otherwise known as the eardrum- this separates the outer ear from the middle ear)( Vander A, Sherman J, Luciano D, 2001). As small air molecules (sound) passesRead MoreEssay about Ebt1 Task 2 Wgu1378 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesResearch Integration EBT1 Task 2 Types of Sources of Evidence/Appropriateness/Classifications The article from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) that addresses acute otitis media (AOM) is a filtered resource. This article is appropriate for use in nursing practice as it establishes diagnosis and management guidelines for the treatment of AOM. In addition the article recommends treatment options for the symptoms of AOM and addressesRead MoreThe Effects Of Otitis Media On Children818 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrestorative finding from a doctor. OTITIS MEDIA The most widely recognized reason for listening to misfortune in kids is otitis media, the restorative term for a center ear disease or aggravation of the center ear. This condition can happen in one or both ears and basically influences kids because of the state of the youthful Eustachian tube (and is the most incessant finding for kids going to a doctor). At the point when left undiscovered and untreated, otitis media can prompt contamination of theRead MoreAntibiotics For Acute Respiratory Infections1219 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesReview Manager (RevMan) 5.2 to analyze data. Although some studies prevented them from performing meta-analyses due to insufficient data or heterogeneity, they were able to statistically analyze the outcomes of fever for sore throat, earache for otitis media, and patient satisfaction. A few forest plots are listed in this review. The delayed antibiotic strategy is compared to immediate and no antibiotics, depending on the available data. The statistical results were accompanied by the odds ratioRead MoreSurgical Repair Or Reconstruct The Tympanic Membrane With A Suitable Graft Material Essay1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesperforation is medium size (25-50% of drum surface area). 3) Present for at least 6 months. 4) Without evidence of active chronic otitis media, cholesteatoma or retraction pocket formation. Exclusion criteria 1) marginal perforations. 2) Large size or total perforation more than two quadrant. 3) Present for less than 6 months. 4) Evidence of active chronic otitis media, cholesteatoma or retraction pocket formation. II. Operational design: This study is a prospective randomized comparative studyRead MoreEar Infection Symptoms : True Explanation, Diagnosis And Treatment Essay1081 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPinterest Otitis, the medical term for ear infection, does not sound threatening to a lot of people. However, when the ear gets infected, ear infection symptoms can cause enough discomfort that can compel a person to seek immediate medical attention. The human ear anatomy has three basic parts, each with unique functions: the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. Categorizing each ear infection and their corresponding clinical manifestations are dependent on the affected part. Otitis ExternaRead MoreThe Role Of Antibiotics As Treatment For Australian Indigenous Children With Om1615 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOtitis media (OM) remains to be a major health concern in Australia, with an inexcusably substantial disparity in the severity and incidence of otitis media, of all its forms, between Indigenous and non-Indigenous child populations. Specifically, children in Indigenous communities suffer from chronic suppurative otitis media at rates that far surpasses the 4% threshold that defines a massive public health concern (WHO, 1996). Currently, the first line of treatment for OM is the use of antibioticsRead MoreEvidence Based Practice For Pediatric Patients1588 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesantibiotics than any other age group. The most common reason for prescribing antibiotics in children is for treatment Acute Otitis Media. Typically many unnecessary and serous side effects may occur in contribution to overprescribing antibiotics for non severe acute otitis media. In do ing so, the risk of developing antibiotic resistant bacteria increases greatly. Diagnosing acute otitis media requires three criteria: presence of middle rare effusion, acute onset of signs and symptoms, and signs and symptoms
The stars were as thick as weeds in an unkempt field, and for the first time, Lathan Devers found the figures to the right of the decimal point of prime importance in calculating the cuts through the hyper-regions. There was a claustrophobic sensation about the necessity for leaps of not more than a light-year. There was a frightening harshness about a sky which glittered unbrokenly in every direction. We will write a custom essay sample on Foundation and Empire 9. On Trantor or any similar topic only for you Order Now It was being lost in a sea of radiation. And in the center of an open cluster of ten thousand stars, whose light tore to shreds the feebly encircling darkness, there circled the huge Imperial planet, Trantor. But it was more than a planet; it was the living pulse beat of an Empire of twenty million stellar systems. It had only one, function, administration; one purpose, government; and one manufactured product, law. The entire world was one functional distortion. There was no living object on its surface hut man, his pets, and his parasites. No blade of grass or fragment of uncovered soil could be found outside the hundred square miles of the Imperial Palace. No fresh water outside the Palace grounds existed but in the vast underground cisterns that held the water supply of a world. The lustrous, indestructible, incorruptible metal that was the unbroken surface of the planet was the foundation of the huge, metal structures that mazed the planet. They were structures connected by causeways; laced by corridors; cubbyholed by offices; basemented by the huge retail centers that covered square miles; penthoused by the glittering amusement world that sparkled into life each night. One could walk around the world of Trantor and never leave that one conglomerate building, nor see the city. A fleet of ships greater in number than all the war fleets the Empire had ever supported landed their cargoes on Trantor each day to feed the forty billions of humans who gave nothing in exchange but the fulfillment of the necessity of untangling the myriads of threads that spiraled into the central administration of the most complex government Humanity had ever known. Twenty agricultural worlds were the granary of Trantor. A universe was its servant. Tightly held by the huge metal arms on either side, the trade ship was gently lowered down the huge ramp that led to the hangar. Already Devers had fumed his way through the manifold complications of a world conceived in paper work and dedicated to the principle of the form-in-quadruplicate. There had been the preliminary halt in space, where the first of what had grown into a hundred questionnaires had been filled out. There were the hundred cross-examinations, the routine administration of a simple Probe, the photographing of the ship, the Characteristic-Analysis of the two men, and the subsequent recording of the same, the search for contraband, the payment of the entry tax Ã¢â¬â and finally the question of the identity cards and visitorÃ¢â¬â¢s visa. Ducem Barr was a Siwennian and subject of the Emperor, but Lathan Devers was an unknown without the requisite documents. The official in charge at the moment was devastated with sorrow, but Devers could not enter. In fact, he would have to be held for official investigation. From somewhere a hundred credits in crisp, new bills backed by the estates of Lord Brodrig made their appearance, and changed bands quietly. The official hemmed importantly and the devastation of his sorrow was assuaged. A new form made its appearance from the appropriate pigeonhole. It was filled out rapidly and efficiently, with the Devers characteristic thereto formally and properly attached. The two men, trader and patrician, entered Siwenna. In the hangar, the trade ship was another vessel to be cached, photographed, recorded, contents noted, identity cards of passengers facsimiled, and for which a suitable fee was paid, recorded, and receipted. And then Devers was on a huge terrace under the bright white sun, along which women chattered, children shrieked, and men sipped drinks languidly and listened to the huge televisors blaring out the news of the Empire. Barr paid a requisite number of iridium coins and appropriated the uppermost member of a pile of newspapers. It was the Trantor Imperial News, official organ of the government. In the back of the news room, there was the soft clicking noise of additional editions being printed in long-distance sympathy with the busy machines at the Imperial News offices ten thousand miles away by corridor Ã¢â¬â six thousand by air-machine Ã¢â¬â just as ten million sets of copies were being likewise printed at that moment in ten million other news rooms all over the planet. Barr glanced at the headlines and said softly, Ã¢â¬Å"What shall we do first?Ã¢â¬ Devers tried to shake himself out of his depression. He was in a universe far removed from his own, on a world that weighted him down with its intricacy, among people whose doings were incomprehensible and whose language was nearly so. The gleaming metallic towers that surrounded him and continued onwards in never-ending multiplicity to beyond the horizon oppressed him; the whole busy, unheeding life of a world-metropolis cast him into the horrible gloom of isolation and pygmyish unimportance. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"I better leave it to you, doc.Ã¢â¬ Barr was calm, low-voice. Ã¢â¬Å"I tried to tell you, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to believe without seeing for yourself, I know that. Do you know how many people want to see the Emperor every day? About one million. Do you know how many he sees? About ten. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to work through the civil service, and that makes it harder. But we canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford the aristocracy.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We have almost one hundred thousand.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"A single Peer of the Realm would cost us that, and it would take at least three or four to form an adequate bridge to the Emperor. It may take fifty chief commissioners and senior supervisors to do the same, but they would cost us only a hundred apiece perhaps. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll do the talking. In the first place, they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand your accent, and in the second, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know the etiquette of Imperial bribery. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an art, I assure you. Ah!Ã¢â¬ The third page of the Imperial News had what he wanted and he passed the paper to Devers. Devers read slowly. The vocabulary was strange, but he understood. He looked up, and his eyes were dark with concern. He slapped the news sheet angrily with the back of his hand. Ã¢â¬Å"You think this can be trusted?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Within limits,Ã¢â¬ replied Barr, calmly. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s highly improbable that the Foundation fleet was wiped out. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ve probably reported that several times already, if theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve gone by the usual war-reporting technique of a world capital far from the actual scene of fighting. What it means, though, is that Riose has won another battle, which would be none-too-unexpected. It says heÃ¢â¬â¢s captured Loris. Is that the capital planet of the Kingdom of Loris?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes,Ã¢â¬ brooded Devers, Ã¢â¬Å"or of what used to be the Kingdom of Loris. And itÃ¢â¬â¢s not twenty parsecs from the Foundation. Doc, weÃ¢â¬â¢ve got to work fast.Ã¢â¬ Barr shrugged, Ã¢â¬Å"You canÃ¢â¬â¢t go fast on Trantor. If you try, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll end up at the point of an atom-blaster, most likely.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How long will it take?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"A month, if weÃ¢â¬â¢re lucky. A month, and our hundred thousand credits Ã¢â¬â if even that will suffice. And that is providing the Emperor does not take it into his head in the meantime to travel to the Summer Planets, where he sees no petitioners at all.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But the Foundation-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"-Will take care of itself, as heretofore. Come, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s the question of dinner. IÃ¢â¬â¢m hungry. And afterwards, the evening is ours and we may as well use it. We shall never see Trantor or any world like it again, you know.Ã¢â¬ The Home Commissioner of the Outer Provinces spread his pudgy hands helplessly and peered at the petitioners with owlish nearsightedness. Ã¢â¬Å"But the Emperor is indisposed, gentlemen. It is really useless to take the matter to my superior. His Imperial Majesty has seen no one in a week.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He will see us,Ã¢â¬ said Barr, with an affectation of confidence. Ã¢â¬Å"It is but a question of seeing a member of the staff of the Privy Secretary.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Impossible,Ã¢â¬ said the commissioner emphatically. Ã¢â¬Å"It would be the worth of my job to attempt that. Now if you could but be more explicit concerning the nature of your business. IÃ¢â¬â¢m willing to help you, understand, but naturally I want something less vague, something I can present to my superior as reason for taking the matter further.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If my business were such that it could be told to any but the highest,Ã¢â¬ suggested Barr, smoothly, Ã¢â¬Å"it would scarcely be important enough to rate audience with His Imperial Majesty. I propose that you take a chance. I might remind you that if His Imperial Majesty attaches the importance to our business which we guarantee that he will, you will stand certain to receive the honors you will deserve for helping us now.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, but-Ã¢â¬ and the commissioner shrugged, wordlessly. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a chance,Ã¢â¬ agreed Barr. Ã¢â¬Å"Naturally, a risk should have its compensation. It is a rather great favor to ask you, but we have already been greatly obliged with your kindness in offering us this opportunity to explain our problem. But if you would allow us to express our gratitude just slightly by-Ã¢â¬Å" Devers scowled. He had heard this speech with its slight variations twenty times in the past month. It ended, as always, in a quick shift of the half-hidden bills. But the epilogue differed here. Usually the bills vanished immediately; here they remained in plain view, while slowly the commissioner counted them, inspecting them front and back as he did so. There was a subtle change in his voice. Ã¢â¬Å"Backed by the Privy Secretary, hey? Good money!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"To get back to the subject-Ã¢â¬ urged Barr. Ã¢â¬Å"No, but wait,Ã¢â¬ interrupted the commissioner, Ã¢â¬Å"let us go back by easy stages. I really do wish to know what your business can be. This money, it is fresh and new, and you must have a good deal, for it strikes me that you have seen other officials before me. Come, now, what about it?Ã¢â¬ Barr said, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t see what you are driving at.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why, see here, it might be proven that you are upon the planet illegally, since the Identification and Entry Cards of your silent friend are certainly inadequate. He is not a subject of the Emperor.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I deny that.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter that you do,Ã¢â¬ said the commissioner, with sudden bluntness. Ã¢â¬Å"The official who signed his Cards for the sum of a hundred credits has confessed Ã¢â¬â under pressure Ã¢â¬â and we know more of you than you think.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If you are hinting, sir, that the sum we have asked you to accept is inadequate in view of the risks-Ã¢â¬Å" The commissioner smiled. Ã¢â¬Å"On the contrary, it is more than adequate.Ã¢â¬ He tossed the bills aside. Ã¢â¬Å"To return to what I was saying, it is the Emperor himself who has become interested in your case. Is it not true, sirs, that you have recently been guests of General Riose? Is it not true that you have escaped from the midst of his army with, to put it mildly, astonishing ease? Is it not true that you possess a small fortune in bills backed by Lord BrodrigÃ¢â¬â¢s estates? In short, is it not true that you are a pair of spies and assassins sent here to Ã¢â¬â Well, you shall tell us yourself who paid you and for what!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Do you know,Ã¢â¬ said Barr, with silky anger, Ã¢â¬Å"I deny the right of a petty commissioner to accuse us of crimes. We will leave.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You will not leave.Ã¢â¬ The commissioner arose, and his eyes no longer seemed near-sighted. Ã¢â¬Å"You need answer no question now; that will be reserved for a later Ã¢â¬â and more forceful Ã¢â¬â time. Nor am I a commissioner; I am a Lieutenant of the Imperial Police. You are under arrest.Ã¢â¬ There was a glitteringly efficient blast-gun in his fist as he smiled. Ã¢â¬Å"There are greater men than you under arrest this day. It is a hornetÃ¢â¬â¢s nest we are cleaning up.Ã¢â¬ Devers snarled and reached slowly for his own gun. The lieutenant of police smiled more broadly and squeezed the contacts. The blasting line of force struck DeversÃ¢â¬â¢ chest in an accurate blaze of destruction Ã¢â¬â that bounced harmlessly off his personal shield in sparkling spicules of light. Devers shot in turn, and the lieutenantÃ¢â¬â¢s head fell from off an upper torso that had disappeared. It was still smiling as it lay in the jag of sunshine which entered through the new-made hole in the wall. It was through the back entrance that they left. Devers said huskily, Ã¢â¬Å"Quickly to the ship. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll have the alarm out in no time.Ã¢â¬ He cursed in a ferocious whisper. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s another plan thatÃ¢â¬â¢s backfired. I could swear the space fiend himself is against me.Ã¢â¬ It was in the open that they became aware of the jabbering crowds that surrounded the huge televisors. They had no time to wait; the disconnected roaring words that reached them, they disregarded. But Barr snatched a copy of the Imperial News before diving into the huge barn of the hangar, where the ship lifted hastily through a giant cavity burnt fiercely into the roof. Ã¢â¬Å"Can you get away from them?Ã¢â¬ asked Barr. Ten ships of the traffic-police wildly followed the runaway craft that had burst out of the lawful, radio-beamed Path of Leaving, and then broken every speed law in creation. Further behind still, sleek vessels of the Secret Service were lifting in pursuit of a carefully described ship manned by two thoroughly identified murderers. Ã¢â¬Å"Watch me,Ã¢â¬ said Devers, and savagely shifted into hyperspace two thousand miles above the surface of Trantor. The shift, so near a planetary mass, meant unconsciousness for Barr and a fearful haze of pain for Devers, but light-years further, space above them was clear. DeversÃ¢â¬â¢ somber pride in his ship burst to the surface. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s not an Imperial ship that could follow me anywhere.Ã¢â¬ And then, bitterly, Ã¢â¬Å"But there is nowhere left to run to for us, and we canÃ¢â¬â¢t fight their weight. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s there to do? What can anyone do?Ã¢â¬ Barr moved feebly on his cot. The effect of the hypershift had not yet worn off, and each of his muscles ached. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"No one has to do anything. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s all over. Here!Ã¢â¬ He passed the copy of the Imperial News that he still clutched, and the headlines were enough for the trader. Ã¢â¬Å"Recalled and arrested Ã¢â¬â Riose and Brodrig,Ã¢â¬ Devers muttered. He stared blankly at Barr. Ã¢â¬Å"Why?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The story doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t say, but what does it matter? The war with the Foundation is over, and at this moment, Siwenna is revolting. Read the story and see.Ã¢â¬ His voice was drifting off. Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll stop in some of the provinces and find out the later details. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t mind, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll go to sleep now.Ã¢â¬ And he did. In grasshopper jumps of increasing magnitude, the trade ship was spanning the Galaxy in its return to the Foundation. How to cite Foundation and Empire 9. On Trantor, Essay examples
Cicero, was truly a man of the state. His writings Essay also show us he was equally a man ofphilosophical temperament and affluence. Yet at times these two forces within Cicero clashand contradict with the early stoic teachings. Cicero gradually adopted the stoiclifestyle but not altogether entirely, and this is somewhat due to the fact of what it waslike to be a roman of the time. The morals of everyday Rome conflicted with some of thestoic ideals that were set by early stoicism. Thus, Cicero changed the face of stoicism byromanizing it; redefining stoicism into the middle phase. Of Cicero it can be said he possessed a bias towards roman life and doctrine. For Cicero every answer lay within Rome itself, from the ideal governing body to the place of divination. Cicero does not offer any alternate answers to roman society, which robs him of being truly a unique and bold political philosopher. This is not to say however some of his doctrines are untrue, just that he is somewhat blinded by his roman beliefs and assumptions. The assumptions of Cicero can be noticed when one inspects his view of the ideal governing body, which he expresses through Scipio (in the commonwealth). Although Cicero presents very convincing arguments for a Composite government, clearly his view is possibly only due towards his belief in the roman structure of government.1Cicero was limited to roman borders of experience, and this point was best illustratedby his disagreement with Aristotles writings on the decay of states. Cicero wasunable to think on the level of Aristotles logic. He quite simply used roman historyas a mapping of the paths of the decay of states. In contrast, Aristotle understood the underlying forces and influences that transpired whena state degraded. Cicero quite frankly could not understand the forces which Aristotle soeloquently denoted. For Cicero, history offered the only possible paths of outcomes; theforces and behaviors played little part on the resulting state.2A further point of philosophical belie f which Cicero contradicted the stoic lifestyle,is religion. Roman tradition conflicted greatly with stoic doctrine, and the twophilosophies could never truly harmonize with one another. This point brought thedistinction between the Greek learned world of intellect, and the traditional religiousroman patronage. This observation literally draws a line between the two worlds, thatof knowledge and reason opposing that of tradition and sentiment. This illustrated thatroman was truly unable to fully accept a Greek philosophy based on knowledge andbrotherhood, and a great Roman such as Cicero was similarly unable to accept the stoicdoctrine as a whole.3 The philosophy of stoicism originated in Greece, and was based on the order of the universe. Nature to the stoics (universe) was a precisely ordered cosmos. Stoics taught that there was an order behind all the evident confusion of the universe. Mans purpose was to acquire order within the universe; harmonizing yourself with the universal o rder. Within this notion of harmonizing lies wisdom, sin resides with resisting the natural order (or nature). The stoics also tell of a rational plan in nature; our role was to live in accord with this plan. The natural order was filled with divinity, and all things possess a divine nature. This natural order was god, and thus the universe was god; the Greek and roman pathos were simply beliefs forged by superstition. The stoics also had a great indifference towards life, in the regard that the natural plan cannot be changed. This attitude made stoics recluse from fame, and opposed to seeking it. One fundamental belief stoics held was in the universal community of mankind. They heldthat a political community is nothing more than its laws borders, since the naturallaws are universal imposed; a universal political community existed in which all menshare membership. This interpretation is generally regarded as the early stoic stage,which had yet to experience little roman influence. Upon roman adoption, stoicism wentthrough a romanizing period; an altering of the philosophy to better integrate intoroman mainstream. The ideal state of Ciceros; For I hold it desirable, first, that there should be a dominant and royal element in the commonwealth; second, that some powers should begranted and assigned to the influence of the aristocracy; and third,that certain matters should be reserved to the people for decision and judgment.4It is important to note that Cicero loses sight of the international community which Zeno,Cleanthes and Chrysippus taught. Cicero tries to link the universal community of mankindwithin the borders of roman political thought. This composite state expressed in Scipio byCicero, is an ideal Rome of the past. The Rex, was the royal element; the senate was thearistocratic influence; The plebs and patricians became the deciding people. By giving thisblueprint of the ideal society, Cicero attempted to answer the stoic doctrine of theuniversal community of mankind. Cicero addressed the pragmantical problems faced by theuniversal community, by giving it armies, judges and powers; liter ally giving the communityof mankind the powers it lacked through Rome. But what makes this attempt unattainable isthe notion of Rome; Rome was a dividing agent. Rome was the polity that divides people;early stoics understood that tradition and politics divide people. Brotherhood of man is notthe assimilation of people into Roman mainstream, but in reality the assimilation of Romeinto the universal community. Cicero does not understand the spirit in which the universalcommunity of mankind was thought. It is, indeed, my judgment, opinion, and conviction that of all formsof government there is none which for organizing, distribution of power,and respect for authority is to be compared with that constitution whichour fathers received from their ancestors and have bequeathed tous The roman commonwealth will be the model; and to it shallapply, if I can, all that I must say about the perfect state.5Clearly Cicero Identifies the perfect state with Rome, he suggested that Rome was thecloses t thing their was to such an aspiration. The perfect state was the expressionand embodiment of the universal community of mankind, to link Rome with the idealstate; was to link Rome with the universal community. The early stoics held that aspecific community was nothing more than its laws borders. Thus, arises the notion ofa universal community, since we are all under the natural law imposed by theuniverse. The fundamental problem lays in that Rome could not realistically imposethe natural law. Rome could simply impose laws of convention, which it could pass asnatural law. This brought about a belief in dual citizenship; one roman, the otheruniversal. But Cicero believed that Rome was the closest manifestation of the commoncommunity of man. A very clear bias was present, Cicero forced Roman sentiment onstoic thought; thereby changing it into something less grandiose than the stoicsmeant by universal citizenship. The accommodating of stoic philosophy into Roman society is very present in theargument of the ideal state. The accommodating brings about the validity ofimperialistic Roman virtue. The Roman expansion was part of the divine plan, to drawtogether a universal community under Roman society. At this point early stoics andRoman virtue conflicted. Roman expansion contradicted stoic indifference doctrine; thenatural plan cannot be changed. Yet Roman expansion was rationalized by accepting thebelief that it was part of the divine plan. For stoicism to be adopted by Roman someideals had to be compromised. Cicero saw this notion of compromise more so than theidea of the early stoic view on universal citizenship. In using the composite statewhich Rome possesses traits of, Cicero tried to justify roman conquest. War in vieques EssayCicero cannot be faulted for not relinquishing his roman traditions, after all Cicerowas also a man of the state. The attitudes of other senate members and the generalpopulace forced him to keep these sentiments. But this showed he was only slightlystoic or only sympathetic towards stoic teachings, his primary responsibility laytowards Rome; not stoicism. Due to his primary responsibility being the state, Cicerosadoption of stoic religious view was simply not possible. The stoic lifestyle is that of an emotion vacuum, this appealed to Cicero. In truth Cicero may have thought embracing stoicism would cure his worldly pains. Namely the loss of his daughter Tullia, whom he obviously loved very much. Equally stoicism may have given him escape during his time of exile from Rome. But early stoics had certain fundamental traits of comportment, which in some instances of his life, Cicero as a roman and a person abolished.One trait at practice was the stoics aversion to violence stoics as Cicero also shared this disgust. In addition stoics also avoided and scorned personal glory. However Cicero had a very different demeanor towards this type of behavior. The quest for glory on a national and personal level was a widely held feature of roman disposition. It was intensely present within Ciceros temperament, the posterity of his and his family name was an abnormally great desire. Ciceros family name was relatively unfamiliar in Rome. Plutarch tells of a tale which although may be untrue conveys the right idea of Ciceros desire for glory;12Cicero himself is said to have given a lively reply to hisfriendson one occasion. When he first entered politics, theysaid he ought to drop or change the name. He said that hewould do his best to make the name Cicero more famousthan names like Scaurus or Catulus. (Plutarch, life ofCicero I)13In a letter to his son Cicero admitted that sometimes his sentiment for glory and traditionprovided a better direction than th e life of philosophy. One should know what philosophy teaches, but live like a gentleman.14Cicero displayed an air of Roman vanity, which denies him of being a true early stoic. Assuch Ciceros aspirations are of a Roman political life, not that of a stoic good life. Cicero either consciously or accidentally, permanently changed early stoicism into itslater identity; middle stoicism. Cicero did not agree to everything stoicism taught, hesought to accept what had merit and what was true to him. At times this proved tocontradict Ciceros ideas, he was part skeptic, part stoic and all roman. Some ofCiceros peers reject his seemingly over-acceptance of Greek philosophy. Yet Cicerobelieved he could strike a balance between the two worlds. By his exhortations on the composite state Cicero attempted to create a common accord between the roman state and the universal community of mankind. To say the romanization of stoicism was an abuse upon early stoicism is a inaccurate assumption. Cicero made the survival of stoicism possible by rendering it more appeasing to roman society. At the same instance Cicero was trying to answer the early pragmatic problem facing such stoic topics as the universal community of mankind. Although he may not have been true to the stoic ideal (spirit of), Cicero made a genuine effort to answer the philosophical dilemmas present in stoicism. It is unfortunate that Ciceros historic bias deprived him from being place on the samefooting as Aristotle. Ciceros viewed the decay of states to be nothing more than areoccurrence of history, but he did seem to understand too well the powers at work. However Cicero did not see past the roman republic of the day. The aspect of stoicism that Cicero cannot accept, is religion. Perhaps because of his daughters death, the inner pain he must have felt to believe she was too much to bear, as such, this influenced his position. This must have made him decide that the stoic belief in this instance to be unacceptable. Cicero the statesman knew that disbelief in roman religion and tradition was an unwisecourse of action. Tradition and the gods gave Rome its strength, intelligence andresolve. To discredit the gods was to discredit Roman society; something Cicero wouldnever do. But this drew a line into how far Cicero would have believed in stoicism;Cicero would believe in stoicism so long as it did not weaken Romes strength andintegrity. For Cicero, stoicism was something to be admired, read, and used. But stoicism wasstill a Greek philosophy, something the roman heart could never truly digest verywell. This may have been Ciceros attitude to a certain extent; however it certainlywas the belief of his contemporaries. Evidence exists that Cicero did not follow stoic lifestyle in his day to day ambitions. His glory seeking made him less respectful as a philosopher, a damage inflicted byRoman sentiment. Cicero took beliefs, attitudes, doctrines and logic to form his own inner philosophical temperament. Regarded as stoic because he sympathized with that philosophy, Cicero modified earl stoicism to form a hybrid with roman tradition. By adding tradition, patriotism, and roman virtue, Cicero reshaped the landscape of stoas philosophy. In essence Cicero was a Roman philosopher. 1 Cicero, Marcus Tullius. On the Commonwealth (New York: The Bobb-Merrill Company Inc, 1929)150-151 2 Cicero, Marcus Tullius. On the Commonwealth (New York: The Bobb-Merrill CompanyInc, 1929) 140, 144, 148, 154-194Roman, Medievel, and Renaissance Political Philosophy, Prof. Dr. M.W. Poirier; lecturenotes 3 M.L. Clarke. The Roman Mind; Studies in the history of thought from Cicero to MarcusAurelius (New York: Norton and Company Inc, 1968) 60-61 4 Cicero, Marcus Tullius. On theCommonwealth (New York: The Bobb-Merrill Company Inc, 1929) 151 5 Cicero, Marcus Tullius. Onthe Commonwealth (New York: The Bobb-Merril Company Inc, 1929) 151-152 6 Cicero, MarcusTullius. On the Commonwealth (New York: The Bobb-Merril Company Inc, 1929) 169 7 Cicero,Marcus Tullius. On the Commonwealth (New York: The Bobb-Merril Company Inc, 1929) 34, 57,134, 147, 1788 M.L. Clarke. The Roman Mind (New York: Norton and Company Inc, 1968) 60-619 M.L. Clarke. The Roman Mind (New York: Norton and Company Inc, 1968) 60 10 (Cicero) M.L. Clarke. The Roman Mind (New York: The Bobb-Merril Company Inc, 1929) 61 11Cicero, Marcus Tullius. Cicero: On the Good Life (Great Britain: Penguin Classics, 1971)13-14 M.L. Clarke. The Roman Mind (New York: Norton and Company Inc, 1968) 6212 M.L Clarke. The Roman Mind (New York: Norton and Company Inc, 1968) 63 Cicero, Marcus Tullius. Cicero: On the Good Life (Great Britain: Penguin Classics , 1971) 1613 David Taylor. Cicero and Rome (London: MacMillan Education, 1973) 1314 M.L Clarke. The Roman Mind (New York: Norton and Company Inc, 1968) 64
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Customer Service Dominant Logic of Marketing. Answer: Introduction: The purchase behaviour of a customer depends on many factors that has to be considered while buying a product in the market. The factors affecting the low and high involvement purchase are the cost, affordability and choice of the consumer. The discussion will point out the reason for buying a product and the factors that affect the purchasing decision of a consumer(Baker,2014). It will analyse the contrasts between the high involvement purchase and low involvement purchase and how they affect the choosing style of an individual consumer. The study has a record of the purchasing list of a consumer for 7 days that involves his daily purchase products. It includes the purchase decision, time, and effort and customers choice for buying the products. The high involvement purchase was also transacted by the customer that was done few weeks before by the consumer(Solomon et al.,2014). The study will show a contrast of thought, purchase process and desire of the customer while purchasing th e both high and low investment product. It compares the decision making process practised by the consumer and how he has judged the product over an alternative product. The study will end with an idea of how the companies must brand or advertise to such consumers to attract them or sell their products. The study will clearly define a situation of effective and efficient market analysis and consumer behaviour that will help an organization or brand to advertise their product and reach that consumer section. Description of the consumer: Age 25 Gender Male Marital status Single Family Lives with parents. Education level Holds Bachelor degree. Currently studying at Master level. Income $50,270.00 Occupation Teacher at middle school Generational cohort Generation Y Value segment Socially Aware Young Optimism (Levine Benjamin, 1997) Psychographics The consumer: Highly interested for books and journals and often buys reading articles to keep himself updated with the global affairs. Busy with work and has less time for entertainment. Concerned about fitness and health development. Doesnt likes to cook but prefers to eat variety of food He is interested to buy new things for house decoration and is fascinated for gardening. Likes to buy gifts for parents and often buys gifts for extended family too. Prefers to save but also likes to spend well enough if in a good mood. Prefers to judge the product with its price before buying. Believes in judicial investment. Personality traits The big five test was applied on the consumer and the result are as follows: Big Five trait Outofservice.com Truity.com Openness 73.00% 100.00% Conscientiousness 74.00% 85.00% Extraversion 6.00% 53.00% Agreeableness 37.00% 63.00% Neuroticism 78.00% 55.00% The diagnosis was done on the basis of a personality test that showed a detailed study of the thinking process and style of the consumer. He has a considerable contrast of thinking that is hi-lighted in the study. The study says that the consumer is extremely reflective and imaginative which is hi-lighted from his good score in openness which is also known as intellect or imagination scale. This shows that he has a score in this section, thus he is very imaginative and reflective in nature. He also has a high score on conscientiousness which means he pays close attention to details and scrutinises the product of purchase. He also has a high score on Neuroticism and that proves he gets irritated or worried easily. The above analysis matches the psychograph of the consumer. Analysis of overall purchase behaviour The house rent- the consumer has to pay a sum of $150 for his rent. This expenditure is one of the basic expenditure incurred by him in every month. The consumer has to pay this through cash and it is a monthly pay. This means the consumer does not have to incur the expenditure every week. The grocery cost- the grocery cost has to be faced by the consumer as his monthly food has to be brought on a weekly basis. These expenditures are faced by him on weekly basis and an approximate amount of $1235 is spend every week on this expenditure. The extra income- the extra amount that he had spent this month was a new jacket for this father. As it is said that he likes to gifts new things to his parents. He decided to buy a new jacket for his father. The jackets costs $600. The main reason for this purchase are: It was new brand and he was not sure about the product quality. He had asked for recommendation and this was the brand he got most of the suggestion about The brand claimed a premium comfort and luxury to the user of their product. The consumer was not very sure about the product but the recommendations from friend made him feel this could have been a trust worthy brand. It had become a high involvement purchase for the consumer. The consumer did not have much idea about the product but the reviews from the friends made him feel that the product might be worthy. The product was attractive for the consumer and he wanted to gift something to his father thus he decided to buy this product. The product was within his budget and the brand got a good rating from his friends thus he decided to buy the product. Thus, it can be conclude that the consumer is very much family oriented and most of his expenditures are worthy and related to living only. He has very less expenditure for self-entertainment or pampering. He prefers to make food at home instead of spending the money outside, thus a certain amount is spent by him on buying groceries and vegetables on a weekly basis. The consumer tries to maintain brand loyalty, however, at the same time he prefers to limit his expenditure in a fixed budget. He prefers quality product and also tries to keep its cost in a limited amount. He does not prefer to buy anything for himself and is concerned about his parents. His expenditure includes only the basis products required to survive, this proves that he will be oriented only in necessity products and not luxury products. However, if required he too might buy luxury product that too from a reputed brand, but that is totally dependent on the brand name and his requirement for the product. He is not a mong those customers who shop products for luxury and satisfaction. Thus, to advertise any product to him, the marketing group has to consider the necessity products with new and creative designs which will attract his attention. The brand can be of high range he will not be concerned about that. Nominated product The nominated high involvement product that the customer had purchased few weeks back was a smart phone. The key features of the products are mentioned below: Storage 32GB Size 4.7 Processor Quad-core RAM 2GB Storage 32GB Price $849 Factors that influenced purchase of nominated product The customer had a deep fascination to buy an Apple I-phone since a long time. He was not too much concerned about his own preference and likings as he felt his most important responsibility was to save for his parents and future. The apple products are innovative and based on technology and human behaviour(Chaffey Ellis-Chadwick, 2016). They tend to understand the consumers choice and preference which is mot liked by the users. The consumer here also preferred the product for this quality. The applications are designed programs which offer appropriate functions for a certain purpose. The website of the company says that they offer various advantages for consumers like business application, tools application to meet the personal need of every individual. The consumer has a deep concern for technology advancement, being a science teacher he is interested to know about the latest technology and its advantages in the society(Lusch Vargo, 2014). The applications provided in this phone are really attracting for the user and thus he selected to buy this products. The young generation already has a fascination for technology advantage products and the specifications provided by the latest phone and system. Apple is a brand is using the latest technology and tools. Self-requirement: The personal reason for hiring this product is the consumer wanted to buy this product since a long time. He was fascinated towards the products since when it came to the market. The consumer wanted to buy the product but at the same time he judicially divided his income and kept a certain amount every month to purchase a phone. The amount that he saved every month was then sufficient enough to buy a phone. He did few reaches about technically advance phone, he took review from friends and thus decided to buy this phone. There were many other phones that he could have bought but as it is mentioned above he is fascinated for branded product and that might cost him more, yet he will buy the product(Lemon Verhoef, 2016). The user was highly confident that he will not buy the next phone before a gap of 2 years. Thus, he decided to buy the phone for his personal use. Other judgement: He had a budget of $800 which was near to the amount of this product. He decided to buy this product as this was almost near to his budget and he could afford the brand in that range. He also chose this product because of its technology advancement and user friendly nature that will be useful to him. He also took review from his friends and families to know more about the product. Finally the reviews were favouring the decision and he decided to buy the product. He had brought the product using a debit card and not cash. He wanted a reduction from his bank instead of buying the product with cash. Because he got review about the product that apple phone is built with a better quality and feature. The review that he got has influenced him to buy the alternate phone. He also found the apple set to be more slim and handy for use and easy to carry(Guy, 2013). He preferred the technology advancement and the user friendly applications in apple that attracted him to buy the product. The review that he received from others also influenced him to buy the product. He is already an influenced customer who prefers to buy product on customer review and brand popularity. However, Samsung and apple has equal fame in the market but somewhere apple has a better reputation or premium tag for it in the market. Thus, he decided to buy the apple phone instead of buying the Samsung phone. There high involvement purchase and low involvement purchase has a huge variation as they are not inter related from any direction. The purchase of a phone and purchase of a jacket has no relevant relation between them but shows the choosing criteria of the customer. The price of the jacket and the price of the phone has a huge variation but it shows the pattern of the consumer for selecting a new product which is not present in his regular buying list. The consumer for both the cases takes advice from friends and relatives before purchasing a product. He limits his budget to a certain extend and purchases accordingly. However, the most important thing in his selection is he chooses the best quality and the product that suits his requirement. He does not compromise with the necessity, even if it costs him a good amount. The consumer is ready to spend if the product meets his requirement. His regular income does not include any luxury product and neither has he spent too much for entertainment. He does not have sufficient time to scrutinize about a product and then purchase it. His strategies are very clear and they are: He does not have time to explore much He does not spend regularly on luxury products As he does not scrutinize the product quality himself, thus he takes review from others He maintains the brand to assure the product quality He exceeds his budget only if the product is worth his purchase. Thus, to attract such customers it is necessary to a good brand image in the market and assure that the brand reputation in the market is maintained(Hill Brierley,2017). The brands must keep a good customer reputation in the market for such consumers who do not have time to explore the product and scrutinize it features. They prefer to listen to the review and decide their choice. These customers are ready to pay a well some amount for the product but will buy only the reputed or referred products in the market. the marketing strategies for such customers will never work if they are discount or offer oriented. Instead they prefer quality product with a high price. Thus, if a brand tries to reach such customers then they have to maintain their own dignity I the market and assure a quality product(Armstrong et al., 2015). These types of consumers once they start buying a brand they prefer that brand and generally do not prefer to change it, as they are have very less time to try new b rands every time. Once a business achieve their trust then it is guaranteed that they will not lose the customer in the future. They are loyal customers and would stick to the product type until their habit is lost. However, it can be really risky for the company or brand to change the product type as there can be high chances that the customers who belong to such group will not like a change in the product type. The market for the product falls if the new products are not likely and familiar to the customers(Cantallops Salvi, 2014). They are very much brand oriented but at the same time they prefer the liked product that are regularly used by them. Thus, the companies should think twice before mixing the products or changing the product type. The risk that lies for such consumers are they are very much choice oriented. They prefer the brand not because they have explored the product but because they have very less time to scrutinize and find a new brand every time(Solomon et al., 2014). Once they have got a negative impression about a product then they are likely to never go to that brand for the next time. The reason for not liking can be any but once they negative impression has been created they never go back to the store. Thus, it has to be considered by the brand that they give their best to maintain such loyal and premium customers in the market. References: Armstrong, G., Kotler, P., Harker, M., Brennan, R. (2015).Marketing: an introduction. Pearson Education. Baker, M. J. (2014). Marketing strategy and management. Palgrave Macmillan. Cantallops, A. S., Salvi, F. (2014). New consumer behavior: A review of research on eWOM and hotels.International Journal of Hospitality Management,36, 41-51. Chaffey, D., Ellis-Chadwick, F. (2016).Digital marketing. Prentice Hall. Guy, B. S. (2013). The marketing of altruistic causes: understanding why people help.Journal of Services Marketing. Hill, N., Brierley, J. (2017).How to measure customer satisfaction. Routledge. Lemon, K. N., Verhoef, P. C. (2016). Understanding customer experience throughout the customer journey.Journal of Marketing,80(6), 69-96. Lusch, R. F., Vargo, S. L. (2014).The service-dominant logic of marketing: Dialog, debate, and directions. Routledge. Solomon, M. R., Dahl, D. W., White, K., Zaichkowsky, J. L., Polegato, R. (2014).Consumer behavior: Buying, having, and being(Vol. 10). Pearson.